The protocols that drive the Indie Web movement are actually open standards published by the W3C Social Web Working Group . This year, some of these standards became W3C Recommendations. Webmentions is the successor to pingbacks and it can also be used for comments and replies in blog posts. IndieAuth is an authentication system based on OAuth that can be used for publishing content into your site using applications via Micropub. Microformats adds metadata to web documents so that applications can also scrap information from blog posts (in a similar fashion to OpenGraph).
One of the most interesting concepts about the Indie Web movement that I like is POSSE : you should own your content, but it's OK to then syndicate your content into silos such as Twitter or Instagram as long as there are links that trace back to your site so that your site is always seen as the canonical place where your content lives.